Oil on water

MATTHEW BROWN, MICHAEL R. BLOOD and STEFANIE DAZIO / Associated Press

Investigators searching for the cause of an undersea oil pipeline break off the Southern California coast have pointed to the possibility that a ship anchor dragged the line across the seabed and cracked it, but two videos released so far provide only tantalizing clues about what might have happened below the ocean surface.

A Coast Guard video released Thursday appears to show a trench in the seafloor leading to a bend in the submerged line, but experts offered varied opinions of the significance of the brief, grainy shots. An earlier video revealed a thin, 13-inch long rupture in the line. The pipe showed no evidence of damage that experts said would be expected from a collision with a multi-ton anchor from cargo ships that routinely move through the area off the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach.

The slight bow in the line displayed in one video “doesn’t necessarily look like anchor damage,” Frank G. Adams, president of Houston-based Interface Consulting International, said in an email. When a pipeline is hit by an anchor or other heavy object “that typically results in physical damage that may lead to a fracture.”

Ramanan Krishnamoorti, a petroleum engineering professor at the University of Houston, said he considered the video that runs along a bend in the line “revealing.”

“It seems to me you’ve got something that was dragged in the sand that might have impacted the pipeline,” he said. However, he remained puzzled that the leak came from a crack and not a larger gash, assuming it was hit by an anchor or some other object.

Reports of a possible spill off Huntington Beach were first coming out Friday evening but the leak wasn’t discovered until Saturday morning. While the size of the spill isn’t known, the Coast Guard on Thursday slightly revised the parameters of the estimates to at least about 25,000 gallons and no more than 132,000 gallons.

The Coast Guard said about 5,500 gallons of crude have been recovered from the ocean. The oil has spread southeast along the coast with reports of small amounts coming ashore in San Diego County, some 50 miles from the original site.

So far the impact on wildfire has been minimal — 10 dead birds and another 25 recovered alive and treated — but environmentalists caution the long-term impacts could be much greater. As cleanup continued on the shore, some beaches in Laguna Beach reopened Friday, though the public still can’t go in the water.

Key questions remain: Could the line have been hit days before the leak started? What ship is responsible? And if a ship anchor is not the culprit, what else could it be? Investigators, meanwhile, continued to hunt for the cause of the break, as well as determine what happened in the crucial early hours after reports of a possible oil spill first came in.

The narrow gash seen in one video could explain why signs of an oil slick were seen Friday night, but the spill eluded detection by the pipeline operator for more than 12 hours.

“My experience suggests this would be a darned hard leak to remotely determine quickly,” said Richard Kuprewicz, a private pipeline accident investigator and consultant. “An opening of this type, on a 17-mile-long underwater pipe is very hard to spot by remote indications. These crack-type releases are lower rate and can go for quite a while.”

When pipes experience a catastrophic failure, the breach typically is much bigger, what’s referred to in the industry as a “fish mouth” rupture because it gapes wide like the mouth of a fish, he said.

Amplify Energy, a Houston-based company that owns and operates three offshore oil platforms and the pipeline south of Los Angeles, said it didn’t know there had been a spill until its workers detected an oil sheen on the water Saturday at 8:09 a.m.

The Coast Guard on Thursday said it is investigating the incident with other agencies as a “major marine casualty” due to the potential involvement of a vessel and damages exceeding $500,000. It said they will determine if criminal charges, civil penalties or new laws or regulations are needed.

The leak occurred about 5 miles offshore at a depth of about 98 feet, investigators said. A 4,000-foot section of the pipeline was dislodged 105 feet, bent back like the string on a bow, Amplify’s CEO Martyn Willsher has said.

Jonathan Stewart, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles, said he was surprised the damage wasn’t more severe given how far the pipe was moved.

“My first reaction when I heard that it is displaced so far was that it’s remarkable that it’s even intact at all,” Stewart said.

Moving a large section of pipe up to 105 feet would have caused “bending deformations” – tension on the side that was stretched into a semicircle, with compression on the other, as it was bent inward, Stewart said.

It’s possible such pressure alone could result in a break, though Stewart said there is too little information to make a conclusion about the cause. It’s possible a sharp section of anchor could pierce the pipeline but “you could still have damage just from the bending.”

“Because it’s pulling on the pipe, you create these bending stresses in the pipe, which could eventually become large enough that they rupture it,” he said.

Questions remain about when the oil company knew it had a problem and delays in reporting the spill.

A foreign ship anchored in the waters off Huntington Beach reported to the Coast Guard that it saw a sheen longer than 2 miles just after 6 p.m. on Oct. 1, and that evening a satellite image from the European Space Agency also indicated a likely oil slick, which was reported to the Coast Guard at 2:06 a.m. Saturday, after being reviewed by a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration analyst.

Federal pipeline safety regulators have put the time of the incident at 2:30 a.m. Saturday but say the company didn’t shut down the pipeline until 6:01 a.m. — more than three hours after a low pressure alarm had gone off indicating a possible problem — and didn’t report the leak to the Coast Guard until 9:07 a.m. Federal and state rules require immediate notification of spills.

Amplify said the line already had been shut down by 6 a.m., then restarted for five minutes for a “meter reading” and again shut down. A meter reading shows how much oil is flowing into and out of the line. The company could have been using that information to confirm if the pressure-change alarm was set off because the line was leaking, said Krishnamoorti and Kuprewicz.

The company said a boat discovered oil on the water at 8:09 a.m.

Willsher, who took questions alongside Coast Guard and other officials over four days, did not show up at Thursday’s news conference. Other officials declined to explain his absence.

Brian Melley contributed from Los Angeles.